Aggression is a complex subject, not least because what one person sees as an acceptable form of expressing anger or frustration may be seen by others as a violent act. Here we explore aggression as verbal and non-verbal behaviours, but not as more violent expressions such as physical assault upon another person.
The article covers definitions and the nature of aggression and then explores personal experiences of aggression from within the self and as a response to aggressive behaviour in others. Factors that are likely to increase or decrease aggression are investigated. The article concludes with a number of ways of coping with aggression.
What is Aggression?
Although aggression appears easy to recognise, defining it proves more difficult. The difficulty appears to lie in distinguishing between acceptable aggressive behaviour which can occur when individuals are angry or frustrated, and violence, which involves the use of physical force and inflicts damage or injury to a person or property. Moyer (1976) argues that aggression may be no more than verbal or symbolic, but violence denotes “a form of human aggression that involves inflicting physical damage on persons or property.” This page is based on Moyer’s definition of aggression and will not directly deal with physical violence.
Humanistic psychologists such as Maslow (1968) have made this distinction by classing aggression as:
- Natural or positive aggression which is aimed largely at self-defence, combating prejudice or social injustice, or
- Pathological aggression which results when an individual’s inner nature has become twisted or frustrated.
Another distinction has been made by Buss (1961) who considers aggression as either hostile or instrumental aggression. He argues that:
- Hostile aggression occurs when the aggressive behaviour is aimed solely at hurting another, in other words aggression for the sake of aggression.
- Instrumental aggression occurs when aggression is a means to an end, and includes self-defence.
Types of Aggressive Behaviour
Aggression can be distressing or harmful to the recipient. Types of behaviour considered aggressive include the following:
- Personal insults/name calling
- Racial or sexual comments
- Verbal threats
- Posturing/threatening gestures
- Abusive phone calls/letters
- Emotional abuse
Theories of Aggression
The most influential theories of aggression can be broadly divided into the following:
- Theories that see aggression as an instinct.
- Theories that suggest frustration is an important factor in aggression.
- Theories that suggest aggression is learned behaviour.
Aggression as an Instinct
There are a number of theories (e.g. the Psychoanalytic Approach, the Ethological Approach and the Biological Approach) which attempt to explain aggression by suggesting that aggressive behaviour occurs because each individual is born with an aggressive instinct. Such theories suggest that aggression is innate, i.e. inborn, and, therefore, unavoidable. Outlets such as competitive sport and creative pursuits serve to reduce socially unacceptable aggressive behaviour.
Frustration as a Factor in Aggression
The Frustration-Aggression theory proposes that aggression occurs as a result of frustration. The inference is that if individuals are frustrated in achieving their aims, the most likely response is aggression. Such individuals are motivated to be aggressive towards whoever or whatever is standing in their way. While frustration often leads to feelings of aggression, critics of this theory have argued that it does not explain all the causes of aggression.
Aggression as Learned Behaviour
The theory of aggression as a learned behaviour is called the Social Learning Approach. This theory argues that aggressive behaviour is not inborn, rather it is something that is learned, either through direct experience or through observation or imitation of others. The more that an individual’s aggression is rewarded, perhaps by getting what is wanted or by parental approval, the more likely that person is to be aggressive in the future.